Filler post: ^___^

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12 Responses to Filler post: ^___^

  1. B0WJOB says:

    Senior Seminar
    Dr. Sheafer
    April 21, 2008

    Book Review:
    Integrative Psychotherapy – Toward a Comprehensive Christian Approach
    Written by McMinn and Campbell, Integrative Psychotherapy is their effort to articulate a model of psychotherapy that is faithful to both Christianity and psychology. It took them almost three years to write, and the ideas took almost three decades of study, listening, and experience to develop. The book starts off by pointing out a problem happening in most graduate schools. Most students do very little integrative work after graduating. They have learned important information about psychology and Christianity, but they have not been taught what they came to study: the integration of psychology and Christianity as it relates to counseling and psychotherapy.
    There are many good ideas and thought provoking writings in this book. In counseling, it is important to know that people in pain take enormous risks to overcome inhibitions and admit their problems to a stranger. Sadly, when clients come for help they are sometimes surprised by how little faith is considered in therapy, even by therapists who promote themselves as Christian therapists. With that being said, the book also presents their analysis and observation on the difference between graduates from different schools. There are evidence suggests graduates of Christian doctoral programs are less likely to use spiritual interventions in their clinical work than Christian graduates from secular programs (Sorenson & Hales, 2002) This could be a good thing because they are more aware of ways that can misusing spiritual intervention with vulnerable clients. On the other hand, this could be a bad thing if they are abandoning the spiritual worldview.
    When it comes to integration, there are many opinions to it. Some prefer to reject psychology altogether and look for a Christian model of helping that is completely scriptural. The authors comment that this idea seems to overlook the possibility of finding truth through created order as well as in Scripture. These counselors close the chance of learning through contemporary science. This book integrates in two dimensions: theologically and theoretically. What the author means by theological integration is that Christian psychotherapy must begin with a Christian view of persons. This is where one puts Christianity as the fundamental starting point. Theoretical integration is referring to find value in psychotherapy literature with different theoretical approaches.
    The authors believe that there is no single system of Christian psychology and there will never be. Just as there is no single unifying theory of personality. History has proven how difficult it is for Christian to agree with one another. Therefore, this book holds an intention to communicate that the Christian approach to psychotherapy is not the absolute theory. Basically, this book has two purposes. One is taking Christianity and psychology seriously, and the other one is the help the hurting people through psychotherapy.
    Chapter one gave an overview of the theological assumptions of integrative psychotherapy. Most people can agree that humans are created in the image of a loving God. However, Christian theologians view the image of God differently. Some have emphasized God’s authorization to take care of creation and describe God as functional. Some identified a specific character in God that is often rational and moral. Others argued that the image of God is contained within relationships. The authors wrote that this book is based on the Augustinian view that sin is both a state and an act. The book suggests Christian psychotherapists to have attitudes of understanding, mercy and acceptance rather than harsh criticism because sin taints all of creation and affects every person.
    The book also uses the model into practical counseling. There are various counseling tips throughout pages that offers profound insights based on professional counseling experiences, and readers will find a small box appearing once every several pages that offers a real life scenario (usually a conversation between therapist and client) which broaden reader’s knowledge and understanding on counseling. This makes the book to have more dynamic function other than presenting theories and talks on integration, but also teaches readers about counseling as well.
    A good way to summarize the state of integration and psychology is by a joke told by the authors: “You can ask three psychologists their views on how to treat a particular client, and you will get four opinions.” There are many models and theories offered by psychologists as an attempt to help people. Problem is that many of these techniques and theories lack scientific support. Fortunately, psychologists keep testing new treatments in order to discover which treatments work best. This book’s approach is rooted in cognitive therapy though not entirely so. They are confident in cognitive therapy interventions by the research literatures; however, they also keep a humble attitude because many other approaches to therapy are also effective. They do admit that cognitive therapy seems drifting to any personality theory. Most of the cognitive therapy seems to be based in pragmatic rationalism (encourages clients to think and produce more favorable feelings). Even with the support of few Bible verses, the authors admit that the philosophical base is shallow and unsatisfying for a Christian approach to therapy.
    One thing I learned throughout the course of this semester is that personal experience influence’ how one perceives and presents method of theory in integration and psychology. The discussion (with the focus of cognitive perspective) is concerned with adults struggling with anxiety and personality disorders because that’s where their clinical work is focused at. There are other areas that this book didn’t explore into, and they include children and adolescents. Basically, this book presents the basic model of integration with a focus on individual therapy that the clients are mostly adults. Despite these weaknesses, the authors understand that psychotherapy should have empirical support to prove its effectiveness, and indeed much of the symptom-focus domain is supported with research data. Written with a great length of time and efforts in combination with lots of studies and research presented by numerous professionals in the field of psychology and theology, the authors expect discussions and possibly critiques that offer areas of improvement. Every conversation and discussion related to this has the possibility to improve the integration model which ultimately serving the Lord. The book ends with a verse from the Bible: “As iron sharpens iron, a friend sharpens a friend” (Proverb 27:17). Overall, I enjoyed reading this book. Readers can tell that the authors are truly dedicated to integration with Christian approach. Their model and theory is well presented with their best effort in being objective, and I personally love the counseling tips in the book. Not only I got to know better on the practice of counseling with Christian integration, but also learned the practical side of counseling as well.

  2. B0WJOB says:

    ya im done bish hello bed here i come 😀

  3. B0WJOB says:

    Ah, what the hell. this is what Psychology seniors have to do to fulfill part of the requirements to graduate:


    Senior Psychology Integration Exam
    Josh _______
    LeTourneau University

    Integration Exam
    Integration of different perspectives of Psychology
    Psychology is a relevant young field of study, but it covers so much on human mind and behavior. There are a number of perspectives in psychology that offer different explanations that help people to understand how a person develops, how a mind works, how to cure a person mentally, and how to improve or modify behavior. Psychology is a secular study that has little influence from Christianity since most psychologists who found different school of thoughts aren’t Christians, but does that mean Psychology has nothing to do with Christianity at all? After having a brief evaluation of each perspective, it is certain that Christian worldview can be included in psychology, and in fact, they can play a big role in it. This paper gives an overview of different perspectives from a Christian’s view with following category:
    1. Philosophical assumption
    2. Model of personality
    3. Model of abnormality
    4. Model of health
    5. Model of change

    Philosophical assumptions
    There are several assumptions in psychoanalysis. Genetic assumption stresses the importance of past events for which it shapes people’s personality. Dynamic assumption argues that behaviors are driven by two basic human drives. Libidinal, or sexual drive, is one of them. While aggression is another major drive that provides creative or destructive potentials. Topological assumption states that there are three levels of consciousness. The one that people are aware is the consciousness. One that can be recalled but not fully aware of is the preconsciousness. Lastly, the one that is not accessible but influential to psychic life is the unconsciousness. Freud believes that although unconscious cannot be studied directly, its existence can be detected by observing behaviors, dreams, and free association. He also proposes that the therapists must explore the deeper part of the mind in order to achieve any significant measure of health (Jones, S., Butman, R., 1991)
    Model of Personality
    Freud believes that a mind consists of three parts that conflict within each other on the battle between instinctive impulses and the social restraints. The id, ego, and superego, are said to help understand the mind. The id is an unconscious psychic energy that operates under the pleasure principle which contains the basic instinct such as sexual and aggressive drives that seeks immediate satisfaction. Id is hiding in the unconscious area of the mind where one can’t really detect the thinking. Ego, on the other hand, belongs to the conscious surface that is responsible to mediate the demands of the id, superego, and reality. The ego operates on the reality principle, which serves as a function to offer controls on the id instincts. According to the reality principle, ego is in charge of directing and managing the instincts. Lastly, superego is the internalized ideals that consists social values and moral standards. Because superego goes against with the id, it’s challenging for the ego to settle the two.
    Based on his experience with his patients and seeing that their symptoms are rooted in unresolved conflicts from early childhood, Freud is convinced that personality forms during the first few years of life. He calls the stages of personality development the psychosexual stage, which has five different stages. The first stage is the oral stage. This is for infants between 0 to 18 months where they seek pleasure on the mouth mainly by sucking. This is also the stage where infants learn to love their mothers. A mother’s response to infant’s demand that comes from id drive determines the infant’s learning and the nature of the infant’s world. Anal stage comes between 1 year and 3 years old infants where gratification is received from toilet training. Children feel a sense of control and reduce frustration by gaining control in a way they can defecate when their parents disapprove, which can lead to developing hostile behavior such as temper tantrums and destructiveness for adult life. Phallic stage is when the pleasure comes from genitals. Simply put, this is when children between ages of 3 to 6 cope with sexual feelings. This is when the notorious Oedipus complex is developed as well. Basically it’s the unconscious desire of a boy for his mother with a desire to replace his father, but later on the boy learns that he has no possibility to compete his father. The boy then starts to cope with threatening feelings of competition with his dad by identifying with him and learn parent’s values into their superego (Schultz, 2005).
    Sigmund Freud believes that any unresolved conflicts during these stages will result fixation, where one lingers focus of pleasure seeking at an early stage. Take oral stage for example, Freud believes orally fixated adults that smoke or eat excessively seek oral gratification.
    Model of Abnormality
    Freud believes anxiety occurs when the ego struggle in controlling between the id and the superego, and result in a protective method of reducing anxiety by using what he calls the defense mechanisms. All six of them distort the reality in different ways but they do help reduce anxiety. Repression hides threatening thoughts, feelings, and memory from one’s consciousness, and they are done unconsciously. Denial is another defense mechanism that denies the existence of an external threat. Reaction formation is basically acting the opposite to what one really wishes. In other words, people express feelings that are opposite of their unconscious feelings. Projection hides the threatening impulse by attributing them to other people. A common example is “He doesn’t trust me” when this actually projects the true feeling of “I don’t trust him”. Regression involves displaying childish and dependent behaviors because the person is fixated to early psychosexual stage. Everyone knows rationalization. It is when someone offers explanations that make the behavior more acceptable and less threatening. Displacement shifts one’s impulse towards more acceptable or less threatening person or objects, such as going to gym and punches the punching bag after having a bad day to release the aggressive impulse. Lastly, sublimation is altering the id impulse by doing what is socially acceptable. A student may choose to play football to shift his aggressive impulse, for example. These are the ways that an individual cope with anxiety which aren’t the solution in resolving them. Problems can develop overtime with the aftermath of this defense mechanism. If one represses a memory for a long time, the person might develop fear or psychological problems eventually which needs to seek therapy to regain the health (Myers, D., 2004).
    Model of Health
    In psychoanalysis, a healthy individual is a person who has self-control over some basic issues and earlier unhappy experiences have been dealt with. In a way, certain parts of unconscious have been made conscious, which helps improving one’s ego strength. The person learns to make responsible decisions in daily lives. The conflict between id and ego still exists, but a healthy individual will make effective commitments and compromises. It is obvious that maturation requires determination to achieve high level of self awareness which one of the ways is through honestly self-assessment. It is impossible to reach perfection, but one must constantly have motivation for growth (Butman, B., Jones, S., 1991).
    Model of Change
    A few techniques of therapy is used in psychoanalysis. Free association is a technique developed by Freud, which the client says whatever comes to mind with no boundaries in a relaxing environment. This has been found to be helpful for clients to remember repressed memories and relieve experiences which help to treat the symptom that the client faces. Catharsis is emotion release that usually let out aggressive energy. Another technique that plays a big part in Freud’s psychoanalysis is the dream analysis. This involves with interpreting the dreams and attempting to uncover unconscious minds. The problem is, Freud interpret the dream within his theory of psychosexual development that most of the dreams are related to sex or unresolved conflicts that was developed in the early developing stages.
    Although Christianity believe that everyone is a sinner and that sin lies in everyone one, saying that a child has sexual desire towards the opposite sex parent is too much. Not only just the Christians, but other psychologists highly criticize Freud’s idea on Oedipus complex. Aggressive and sexual drives are compatible with Christian belief that they are part of the sins; the difference is that psychoanalysis emphasize too much on sex and early childhood. In an overall picture, Christianity believes a person a change or grow at any stage of life.
    Philosophical Assumptions
    Behaviorism bases on the belief that all living organisms do, including thinking, feeling, and acting, are regarded as behavior. A core belief is that behaviors can be described scientifically without looking into the internal states of human body, or the mind. Everything can be observed. In other words, behaviorism is the view that psychology is an objective science and ignores the mental process while observing and study behavior. Nowadays, most psychologists disagree on the second part. They believe mind process does play a crucial role in psychology, and that should be the way it is. Skinner, an icon for behaviorism, believe that with a reinforcer that is responsible for determining a desired response, an animal or a human could be trained to perform almost any behavior.(Shultz, 2005, p. 383)
    Behaviorism is under the influence of logical positivism, which asserts that everything must be either analytic or falsifiable. For example, the statement that “God exists” is not false, but is rather meaningless because it cannot be empirically verified. Behaviorism has this belief that if material universe can be understood according to universal laws, human beings are therefore explainable by natural laws. There is no mental state in behaviorism because it is not accessible to empirical study.
    Reductionism is the principle of breaking down complex phenomena into simpler ones. Therefore, thoughts will be categorized as ‘subvocal verbal behavior’. Environmentalism believes that all behaviors are caused by external factors. Every behavior is caused by events happening in the environment. Therefore, human choices are illusions and actions are the results of natural forces imposing on mankind (Butman, B., Jones, S., 1991).
    Throwing away the role of mind is not only criticized and disagreed by most psychologists, but Christians as well. While being able to observe and study one’s behavior has nothing to against Christianity, mankind is given with a soul and a free will that can think, act, and make choices for themselves. Behaviorism’s view on living organisms which they can be programmed or conditioned for any behavior almost gives a message that mankind and animals are no different than robots.
    Model of Personality
    Respondent behavior and operant behavior are two types of behavior that Skinner differentiated. Respondent behavior is responses resulted by specific stimulus. Skinner says this occurs automatically, involuntary, and it is unlearned. Classical conditioning discovered by Ivan Pavlov by accident while having experiment on his dog. Basically this learning involves with substituting one stimulus for another. This is where Pavlov differentiates different behaviors into unconditioned stimulus (stimulus automatically triggers a response), unconditioned response (unlearned and naturally occurring response), conditioned stimulus (an irrelevant stimulus triggers a conditioned response after associating with unconditioned stimulus), and conditioned response (learned response). Pavlov also discovered extinction, generalization, discrimination, and spontaneous recovery. Extinction is when a conditioned response goes away when an UCS does not follow a CS. In other words, no reinforcement is given. Generalization occurs when similar stimuli brings a similar response. Discrimination is the ability to differentiate between stimulus that gives reward and stimulus that do not signal an UCS. Spontaneous recovery happens after a resting period of extinguished condition response, that the response reappear but still will go away if conditioned response is not given (Myers, D. 2004).
    Operant conditioning is a type of learning of learning which behavior is strengthened following by a reinforcer, or the vise versa which behavior is stopped after a punisher. Skinner uncovers more of this by using the Skinner box, where he puts a rat in it. When the rat triggers a device, food will be given as reinforcer. Skinner used this to research more on operant conditioning. He discovered different reinforcement schedules which affect behavior in different way. In fixed ratio schedule, reinforcement is given after a specific number of responses are received. Along with variable ratio schedule, fixed interval schedule, and variable interval schedule, Skinner’s work has applied to real life in many ways. Behavior modification can be used in various situations (Schultz, D., Schultz, S 2008).
    Conditioning can also be found in the Bible. Proverbs 23:13 says “Do not withhold discipline from a child; if you punish him with the rod, he will not die.” Although psychologists don’t favor much on punishment, the Bible makes a point that correcting a child’s behavior is important. It also tells the parents to be responsible in nurture their children.
    Model of abnormality
    One way to modify a behavior is using punishment. Punishment decreases behavior by basically giving undesirable consequence. Problem is, most psychologists agree that punishment can also develop anger, fear, resistance, and other negative results. Another reason why punishment is not good is because it tells a person what not to do but it doesn’t tell the person what to do.
    Focusing on the behavior, behaviorists believe that problems are caused by bad behavior conditioning and learning. They focus on modifying client’s behaviors. In cognitive behavioral approach, the therapy focuses on changing the thought and the action. Behaviorists have structured treatment that includes the following: learning strategies, reconditioning, modeling, reinforcement, and social learning. (Myers, D. 2004).
    Again, these behavior modifying techniques can be effective and even Christian therapists can use these techniques when treating their client.
    Model of health
    A healthy individual should have well developed social skills that can help them to prevent from getting into failure situations.
    Model of change
    Behavior modification and other techniques from the behaviorism can help in curing unhealthy addiction such as smoking, gambling, and alcohol drinking. A therapist can be flexible in which specific method is used, either by using the conditioning, punishment, rewarding, and other techniques. The purpose of rewards and punishments is to increase the desired behavior only with different method. Therapists usually find rewards more effective than punishment. Instead of punishing client for smoking, a therapist could reward client for reducing amount of cigarette smoked in a day with a desired reward, such as a dinner coupon to a nice restaurant. After the treatment from the behavior therapists, it is important to know whether the client is maintaining the conditioned, desired behavior. Once the modified behavior has become a permanent habit, the client should have nothing to worry about. A good communication between the therapist and the client about the effect of the therapy and other things that are related to the therapy is important. One thing therapists should keep in mind is to begin a therapy with a careful assessment that controls conditions which influence the problematic behaviors. This is part of conducting a functional analysis of the problem which the focus is on the behavior than the person (Butman, B., Jones, S., 1991).
    One way that Christianity can relate to this is that the consistency is emphasized in the spiritual growth just as being consistent in maintaining conditioned or modified behaviors.
    Philosophical assumptions
    Humanistic psychology is concerned with the human dimension and the context for development. Bugental (1964) gives a good definition to humanistic approach: “human beings have unique human context that cannot be reduced to components. One’s consciousness includes an awareness of oneself in the context of other people. Human has choices and non-desired responsibilities, and human are intentional that seeks meaning, value and creativity.” (Bugental, 1964, p. 19-25) Abraham Maslow believes that human seek self-actualization, which is a never ending journey to fulfill one’s potential. Carl Rogers agree with Maslow that people are basically good, that unconditional positive regard is part of the essential growths other than genuineness and empathy. Unconditional positive regard is an attitude of acceptance towards another person (Schultz, D., Schultz, S 2008).
    Carl Rogers is the founder of person centered therapy since 1940s, and its primary focus is on the client than the therapist. It emphasizes the dominance of individuals and some people criticize for contributing to modern narcissism and twisting the value of sharing in society. Despite criticisms, person centered therapy has been adopted as one of the counseling techniques by many therapists. Person centered therapy believes that persons should be studied as whole and unique beings. Client’s self report should be highly valued than what the therapists can observe. An extremely important way of gaining insight is to have empathic understanding towards clients. Contrast to behaviorism which believes behaviors are more reactive to events, humanism believes that persons have the potential to act with responsibility and choice (Butman, B., Jones, S., 1991).
    Of all the secular theoretical approach, humanistic psychology has something in common with Christianity. Humanism believes that people have choices (free will from the Christianity), seek meaning and value, and the three conditions of growth requires basically a loving attitude.
    Model of personality
    Abraham Maslow proposed the hierarchy of needs that arranges from the strongest to weakest innate needs that activates and directs behavior. The very first level of need is the need for physiological need which is essential for survival such as food, water, and sex. Once this need is satisfied, one moves on to the next level of need. Following the physiological need is the safety needs to feel that the world is organized and predictable along with having the need to feel safe, secure, and stable. Next level is the need to be accepted and loved. This is where people avoid loneliness and alienation. After that is the esteem need from self and others. This is where one achieves self-esteem, accomplishments, independence, and earning recognition and respect from others. The final level of need is the need for actualization, which is to live up to one’s fullest and unique potential (Myers, D. 2004).
    Carl Rogers believes that infants develop a need for acceptance and love from others, which is also called positive regard. This is crucial to personality development and infant behavior is influenced by the amount of love that is given. Carl Rogers also coins another term called unconditional positive regard. In the infant example, the mother love the child is not dependent to the child’s behavior but rather it’s granted freely. In his theory, a fully functioning people exhibit an awareness of all experiences. They live fully in each moment, trust in their own organism, have a sense of freedom to make choices without constraints, may face difficulties but can live adaptively (Schultz, D., Schultz, S 2008).
    In Maslow’s hierarchy of need, physiological is placed at the very bottom which is the essential elements of survival. Surely food and water are the most important to sustain a life, however, the Scripture says that the spiritual food is going to be more important than the physiological need. The importance of spirituality should be factored into the hierarchy of need. Maslow’s table shows the aspect of physical and mental, but left out the spiritual aspect. A true hierarchy of needs should also have spiritual aspect in it as well (Myers, D. 2004).
    Model of abnormality
    Humanism places emphasis on the individual self. It appears that one cause to psychopathology is when an individual is being influenced or receiving stress from other people. Contrast to the ideal childhood, very few people gets through childhood unharmed. Many people experience conditions of worth, which is defined as being loved conditionally. Instead of being accepting at all time, some parents place expectations to their kid and hope they would act according to their will. This makes a children create an ideal self which doesn’t reflect to his true self. This distorted self concept could result in impaired perception of self and the world which affect his choice. Incongruence is another problem that people experience. When people start to have behavior or feelings that others demand, they start to feel psychological pain due to the incongruence between what they try to become and who they really are (Butman, B., Jones, S., 1991).
    Model of Health
    A healthy individual should have feeling of control over his or her life. A well developed person should also have the feeling of empathy and love towards others. The person should have a certain level in positive self-regard, which is the condition that acceptance and approval is granted. The person should appreciate all experiences and see them as opportunity to grow. One way to achieve this positive outcome is to receive positive regard from parents with unconditional love. A child growing up will be aware of his natural urges. The child will start to define himself and develop self-concept based on his own experience. Ideally a healthy individual should have his or her self concept matches with ideal self well.
    A healthy individual is honest, satisfied, aware, spontaneous, trusting, and open to experience. Ideally, the person chooses to direct his or her life with choices rather than being dictated by the external environment. This will result in the person being completely self-accepting and committed to a process of growth (Butman, B., Jones, S., 1991).
    Model of Change
    There are several keys therapists should keep in mind when working with clients.
    Empathy is the first key in counseling. Empathy is basically accepting client’s inner world and the therapist’s capacity to experience with the client. Fully relating oneself while fully relating to the client is the key to achieve congruence. This is where therapist finds the capacity to perceive his or her own inner experiencing in response to the client and allowing this to affect counseling in a healthy way. Having unconditional positive regard towards clients is not a technique but more of the personhood of the therapist. It is a steadfast acceptance and respect towards client’s experience. All of these achieve one goal: to establish a stronger therapeutic relationship, which is what humanistic highly values. Therapists are there to help clients to release their own innate potentials (Butman, B., Jones, S., 1991).
    The idea behind humanistic’s model of change is very similar to what scripture says. Both encourage a positive relationship between two people which helps to improve their well-being. Basically, humanistic’s model of change can be summed up in one sentence from the scripture: love one another.
    Cognitive Theory
    Philosophical assumptions
    Cognitive psychology takes the approach of accepting the use of the scientific method, and generally rejects introspection as a valid method of investigation. Unlike behaviorist psychology, it explicitly acknowledges the existence of internal mental states such as belief, desire and motivation. Cognitive psychology is concerned with sensation, perception, imaging, memory, problem solving, thinking, and related mental activities. Nessier defines cognition as processes which sensory input is transformed, reduced, stored, recovered, and used. Cognition is involved in everything a human being might possibly do (Schultz, D., Schultz, S., 2008). Few big goals for cognitive psychology is to find ways to improve memory, increase decision-making accuracy, and structure educational curriculums to enhance learning.
    Cognitive psychology recognizes internal processing, which can also be seen in the Bible. While cognitive psychology acknowledges the existence of mental state, the Bible teaches people to how to keep the mind clean and strong by focusing at God.
    Model of Personality
    George Kelly describes personality in terms of cognitive process. People are capable of interpreting behaviors and using this understanding to guide their behaviors. This is the personal construct theory. He states that in order to understand personality, people must understand their patterns and the way the world is organized. He believes that people are capable of interpreting events and behaviors and use this understanding to not only guide their behaviors but also behaviors of other people. Kelly suggests that people organize their world by observing the events that happen around their lives and interpret them in their own way. He calls the construct a person’s unique way of looking at life with intellectual hypothesis to interpret events. Because people are different, they perceive an event differently. Kelly also proposes personal construct, which means that people try to predict and control the events in their lives. One way to understand a person’s personality is to examine his or her personal construct. He explains that construct is a person’s unique way of perceiving life and intellectual hypothesis use to explain events (Schultz, D., Schultz, S., 2005).
    Model of abnormality
    The cognitive approach assumes that clients face problems that are results from faulty cognition. Therefore, clinicians mostly focus on modifying a person’s thought process so they no longer have wrong and distorted thought pattern. Usually this is paired with behavioral approach, which forms the cognitive behavior approach in therapy. The treatment is structured that stresses activities to replace dysfunctional cognition with those that are more realistic. This is to help the clients to deal more effectively with present difficulties (Neukrug, E., 2006).
    Model of health
    According to cognitive approach, a healthy individual should gain control in his or her life, and a way to understand a personality is to examine the personal construct. Individual should also have a good understand on what is likely to occur if a certain behavior is acted out. In other words, having an idea of the consequence of action is important as a healthy individual. There are over 11 corollaries of personal construct theory that helps people to understand better of some consequences from actions. To list a few, range is when people’s constructs apply to many situations, or they may be limited to single situation. Sociality is when people try to understand how other people think and predict what they might do.
    Model of change
    The corollaries of personal construct theory is detailed and well structured. In fixed role therapy, the client is asked to write a self characterization. While doing so, the therapist writes a sketch of a new character that the client finds it plausible. Then the therapist will ask the client to try to become like that character for a while, and the purpose of this is to introduce a new construct to the client’s existing construct. According to Kelly, the goal of this exercise is to encourage experimentation and provide a good and rousing experience for the client (Neukrug, E., 2006). Question is, is everyone able to fully master every one of them? The Bible says that “It is better to take refuge in the Lord than to trust in man” (Psalms 118:8) Sure, people can try to predict other people’s behavior, but in a way, people aren’t reliable. God manages and is in charge of everything. Instead of focusing on oneself thinking that he or she can handle all the situation and people, including their relationships, why not put faith in the Lord and let Him take charge of people’s lives?

    Personal theoretical perspective
    Philosophical assumptions
    Taking the practical and helpful parts from various psychological perspectives, a big role in my own theoretical perspective is Christian integration. Christian counseling not only offer helps to clients just as other schools in psychology, but it might be even more powerful. Dr. Jack Graham, the leader from HopeWorks Counseling organization, states his belief on the importance on Christian counseling: “Scripture implores us to no longer conform to the ways of this world, but to renew and transform our minds that we might experience God’s good, pleasing and perfect will. There are times in life when obstacles from our present and even our past may prevent us from realizing that truth. In those times, biblical counseling can serve as the catalyst to enable you to experience more meaning and significance from life.” Theories of counseling must have some truth that can be combined with Biblical knowledge to bring about a better outcome for the clients since all truth is God’s truth.
    In order to develop a healthy personality, parental nourishment is a very important key. The parents should love their children without asking anything in return. They let their children understand that they are valued in the parent’s eyes and they are precious beings. This will help the children to develop stronger self esteem and have a better self worth.
    Model of personality
    Childhood development is important for modeling personality and has influence for later life. It is no surprise that Freud developed his model of personality after seeing many of his patients having problem because of their unresolved conflicts in their early stage of life. Adopting the humanistic and neopsychoanalytic approach that unconditional positive regard and Jung’s developmental stages, a person’s interaction with different people and the experience from it results in shaping one’s personality or perception of the world. Adolescents must learn to cope with growing demand of reality, and social aspect is important. Parents’ love and the way they raise their child is very crucial in determining what kind of person that child will become. Although the nurture aspect from the parents is crucial, it is not the total aspect of personality development. Nature also plays a role where one’s genes influence one’s personality as well. Both of them are important, but it is the nature aspect that the parents can have control over, and they should take full responsibility in raising their children into a healthy individual.
    Model of abnormality
    A therapist should be flexible in applying the therapy technique to the clients. Depend on client’s situation, different school of psychology technique can be used. Behavior modification from the school of Behaviorism helps an individual to break a unhealthy habit. Helping the clients to replace faulty cognition with those that are accurate and realistic from the idea of cognitive approach helps the patient to a healthier life and more positive thinking. Once again, different theories from different perspective helps the client depends on their situation.
    An individual cannot be fully healthy without having a good spiritual life. My model of abnormality has a strong Christian influence which states that some of the problems are caused by having a weak relationship with the Lord. Just like the New Testament mentions, a man who is demon possessed is cured, however, the demon later visit the man and sees that he is very suitable for ‘living’, which the demon brings its partners and live in the man. This can be interpreted that the man did not establish a relationship with the Lord after the demon is cast out. The person lives his own life and allows himself to be vulnerable to other temptations, it is no surprise that he ends up being more messed up than ever.
    Model of health
    “A wise man is he who listens to counsel” (Proverbs 12:15) A healthy individual is one who acknowledge that he or she is not perfect (a sinner) and has an open attitude to listen and accept advices from fellow brothers and sisters. This is not to encourage an individual to blindly accept every advice others give. Instead, the individual should have enough wisdom to determine good advice and advices that will only bind him or her. “Fearing the Lord is the beginning of wisdom.” (Proverb 1:7) A healthy individual is one who keeps humble attitude. After going through Christian counseling and other sessions, the client who is now healthy should have learned the things taught in the therapy. If the client who is recovered from Christian therapy and takes what he learned by heart, not only the healthiness applies to mental state but can also be spiritually refreshing as well. Strive to be a righteous man and walk in the Lord’s path, and that is an important way to live a healthy life.
    Model of change
    It is very important to establish a counseling relationship with the client that helps the client to be able to freely talk about his or her problem without feeling any barrier. Therapist should let clients to understand that he or she is there to help the client with best intention. Let the clients know that not only the therapist is here to help, but the Lord is also the counselor of the session as well. Of course, therapist must avoid being ignorant about client’s religious view, meaning that flexibility is needed. Nevertheless it is recommended to let the clients understand that everything comes from the Lord. A cured and healthy person is like a born again Christian – he or she must maintain that positive lifestyle just like Christians should always live in the Lord. Everyone is imperfect and sinner, but as long as the person is willing to change and improve, with the help of the Lord by humbling oneself and faithfully walk in the Lord, the person should maintain as a healthy individual. A change of mind starts from the change of heart, and only God can do that. The session will not only be purely psychological but also spiritual as well. Prayers and devotions are included in the counseling session to help the client to work both psychologically and spiritually. Clients should achieve better health being with the help from both the counselor and the Lord.

    Bugental, J.F.T (1964) The Third Force in Psychology. Journal of Humanistic
    Psychology, 4, pp. 19-25.
    Graham, J., Hopeworks Counseling: Christian Counseling, 2005

    Lieberman, D. (2004). Learning and memory. Belmont, CA: Thomson Wadsworth.
    Myers, D. (2004). Psychology. New York: Worth Publishers.
    Neukrug, E. (2006). Skills and tools for today’s counselors and psychotherapists.
    Belmont, CA: Thomson Wadsworth.
    Schultz, D., Schultz, S (2005). Theories of personality. Belmont, CA: Thomson
    Schultz, D., Schultz, S (2008). A history of modern psychology. Belmont, CA: Thomson
    Butman, B., Jones, S., (1991)


  4. B0WJOB says:

    (it’s actually not that ban when i wrote it….
    i heard that graduate schools…they have to write
    like HUNDREDS of papers (doctrine) in order to
    get a masters or something…now THAT sounds really scary .___.

  5. B0WJOB says:

    im gonna stop spamming on my own blog before i BAN myself :3

  6. Zen says:

    All this, just to listen to someone’s problem’s when you’re old and crotchety? o.o

  7. akumeiji says:

    Ah I’m too lazy to log into wordpress and i’m waiting for my MBP so…

    I did not read the above mountain of text in order to keep my sanity.

    i lol’d

  8. shymayhem says:

    Too much to read.
    Too little time.

  9. Zen says:

    Hey, did you check if you got selected for testing? I got turned down, again ._.

  10. lucy says:

    christians therapists says that the being said, the book also presents their analysis and observation on the difference between graduates from different schools and different families and therapist should be flexible in the techniques depend upon the clients condition and different theroies from different perspective helps client situati

    Christian Drug Rehab

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